Bootstrap (front-end framework)

Bootstrap is a free and open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. It contains CSS- and (optionally) JavaScript-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation, and other interface components.

Bootstrap is the seventh-most-starred project on GitHub, with more than 142,000 stars, behind freeCodeCamp (almost 312,000 stars) and marginally behind Vue.js framework. According to Alexa Rank, Bootstrap is in the top-2000 in the USA while vuejs.org is in the top-7000 in the USA.

Features :

Bootstrap is a web framework that focuses on simplifying the development of informative web pages (as opposed to web apps). The primary purpose of adding it to a web project is to apply Bootstrap’s choices of color, size, font and layout to that project. As such, the primary factor is whether the developers in charge find those choices to their liking. Once added to a project, Bootstrap provides basic style definitions for all HTML elements. The result is a uniform appearance for prose, tables and form elements across web browsers. In addition, developers can take advantage of CSS classes defined in Bootstrap to further customize the appearance of their contents. For example, Bootstrap has provisioned for light- and dark-colored tables, page headings, more prominent pull quotes, and text with a highlight.

Bootstrap also comes with several JavaScript components in the form of jQuery plugins. They provide additional user interface elements such as dialog boxes, tooltips, and carousels. Each Bootstrap component consists of an HTML structure, CSS declarations, and in some cases accompanying JavaScript code. They also extend the functionality of some existing interface elements, including for example an auto-complete function for input fields.Example of a webpage using Bootstrap framework rendered in Firefox

The most prominent components of Bootstrap are its layout components, as they affect an entire web page. The basic layout component is called “Container”, as every other element in the page is placed in it. Developers can choose between a fixed-width container and a fluid-width container. While the latter always fills the width of the web page, the former uses one of the four predefined fixed widths, depending on the size of the screen showing the page:

  • Smaller than 576 pixels
  • 576–768 pixels
  • 768–992 pixels
  • 992–1200 pixels
  • Larger than 1200 pixels

Once a container is in place, other Bootstrap layout components implement a CSS Flexbox layout through defining rows and columns.

A precompiled version of Bootstrap is available in the form of one CSS file and three JavaScript files that can be readily added to any project. The raw form of Bootstrap, however, enables developers to implement further customization and size optimizations. This raw form is modular, meaning that the developer can remove unneeded components, apply a theme and modify the uncompiled Sass files.